1856 – George Bernard Shaw, Nobel Prize-winning Irish playwright who was a co-founder of the London School of Economics; he also wrote music and literary criticism, essays, novels, and short stories.
1872 – George Louis Beer, renowned American historian of the Imperial school; he wrote about British colonialism.
1875 – Carl G. Jung, influential Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded and wrote extensively about the field of analytic psychology, in some aspects a response to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis.
1875 – Antonio Machado (full name Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz), Spanish poet who was one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of ’98.
1885 – Andre Maurois (born Émile Salomon Wilhelm Herzog), prolific French author of novels, biographies, essays, histories, children’s books, and science-fiction stories.
1892 – Pearl Buck, Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, short-story writer, children’s author, and biographer who grew up in China, where her parents were missionaries, and also lived part of her adult life there; many of her books are based on her experiences and observations in Asia and on the clash between East and West.
1894 – Aldous Huxley, British-born author of the classic science-fiction novel Brave New World who also wrote other novels, nonfiction, poetry, satire, short stories, travel pieces, memoirs, and film scripts; he was nominated for the Nobel Prize seven times but never won.
1921 – Jean Shepherd, American short-story writer, book author, screenwriter, actor, storyteller, and radio and TV personality, best known as co-writer and narrator of the 1983 film, A Christmas Story.
1922 – Chairil Anwar, Indonesian poet and member of the “1945 generation” of writers; he is estimated to have written 96 works, including 70 individual poems, despite the fact that he died at the age of 26.
1922 – Blake Edwards, American screenwriter, film director, and producer who was married to actress and singer Julie Andrews.
1925 – Ana María Matute Ausejo, internationally acclaimed Spanish writer and member of the Real Academia Española; she won the Cervantes Prize for her literary oeuvre.
1954 – Lawrence Watt-Evans, Hugo Award-winning American author of fantasy, science fiction, and horror.